Hair Follicle Screening:
What is hair drug screening? A hair screen is an examination that uses a small sample of hair to identify specific drugs used by the person being tested. A hair follicle drug test measures the drug molecules and their specific metabolites that are produced only after the drug has been processed by the human body. After the drug is processed, trace amounts of its metabolites are inserted into hair follicle by the bloodstream.
A standard hair follicle screen covers a period of approximately 90 days, but is susceptible to time variation depending on the growth rate of your hair. The hair sample is cut as close to the scalp as possible and the most recent 3.9cm (or 1.5 inches) are tested. It is possible to go back even further than 90 days since the time period is limited only by the length of the hair sample, but is standardized to a 90 day history.
Cocaine (Cocaine & Benzoylecgonine), Marijuana, Opiates (Codeine, Morphine & 6-Monacteyl Morphine), Methamphetamine (Methamphetamine/Amphetamine & Ecstasy), and Phencyclidine (PCP). These five drug classes are mandated for testing by the Federal Government.
Hair collected at the crown of the head grows on the average of approximately 1.3 cm (or 1/2 inch) per month.
Body hair can be drug tested just as hair from the head. The growth rates for body are considerably slower than the hair from your head. Most body hair is replaced in about one year. It is challenging to precisely represent the time period of a standard screen with body hair so substances may be detected in body hair for up to 1 year after the substance left the blood stream.
In comparison to a urinalysis drug test, cocaine, PCP, opiates, and methamphetamine have proven hair analysis far more effective than urine testing in identifying low-level drug use over an extended period of time since these are normally out of the bloodstream in within 3-7 days. The detection of marijuana is currently less sensitive than the other drugs in identifying low level drug users, but is considered approximately equal to urinalysis in identifying marijuana users. The detection period for hair is limited only by the length of the hair sample and is approximately 90 days for a standard screen.
After a substance is ingested, whether orally, smoked, snorted, or injected, metabolites are produced as the drug is processed by the human body. As these drugs and metabolites circulate in the blood stream, they enter and nourish the hair follicle and are then inserted into the hair strand.
Finger Nail Screening:
Nail specimens, unlike urine samples, yield information about drug exposure time frames measured in months, rather than days. Drugs can be identified in nail clippings two weeks to four weeks following ingestion. A 3 millimeter specimen of fingernail represents up to eight months of collective history of drug exposure. Urine, on the other hand, for a drug like cocaine, can only yield about three days of prior drug exposure history. Nail testing is available as a 5 or 10 panel.
Single doses do not guarantee a positive result. The number of doses required to generate a positive results is highly variable between donors.
Drugs can be identified in nails up to eight months after the last usage. Toenail clippings show over one year of drug use.
The optimum amount of nail clippings needed is 100 milligrams. If trimming all 10 fingernails, each clipping must be at least 2 millimeters to 3 millimeters long.
Drugs are distributed via the blood supply to the nail cells and the nail bed. Nails grow not only in length but in thickness as well. As the nail grows in thickness, it creates layers of drug history.
Amphetamines, Methamphetamine/MDMA, Cannabinoids, Cocaine, Opiates, Phencyclidine (PCP)
5-drugs plus Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates, Methadone, Propoxyphene
Drug Patch : Sweat Patch drug test system is designed to be worn for seven days and tests for the 5 common drugs of abuse (marijuana or THC, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines and PCP). The sweat patch consists of a collector pad held in place by a strong adhesive film. If the subject uses drugs while wearing the patch, a small portion of the drug and/or drug metabolite is excreted in the sweat and absorbed into the collector pad. The sweat patch drug test provides continuous monitoring for the entire time the subject wears the patch. The sweat patch is water resistant so it stays on during showers and swimming. An extended opiate panel is also available.
Resists Tampering and AdulterationNone of the common methods used to defeat urine drug testing are effective with the sweat patch. Drinking fluids and ingesting cleansers have no effect on the sweat patch.
Test Includes Laboratory GC/MS Confirmation tests are analyzed by a certified laboratory. Cut-off levels correspond to levels of detection in urine. Non-negative screening results are confirmed using the gold-standard GC/MS methodology to produce evidential-quality results. The sweat patch has a long history of successful defenses against court challenges.
Urinalysis Screening:A urinalysis is simply an analysis of the urine.
Mouth Swab Screening:
Because oral fluid specimens require much lower screening levels than urine, initial screening test by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microplate technology. ELISA is one of the current screening methods with adequate sensitivity to detect drugs of abuse in oral fluid specimens.